首頁首頁  日曆日曆  相冊相冊  常見問題常見問題  會員群組會員群組  會員註冊會員註冊  登入  

分享 | 
 

 20170313《靜思妙蓮華》四念處及因緣法 (第1042集) (法華經•化城喻品第七)

上一篇主題 下一篇主題 向下 
發表人內容
月亮
版主
版主
avatar

文章總數 : 18184
年齡 : 64
來自 : 台中
威望 : 1628
注冊日期 : 2009-01-11

發表主題: 20170313《靜思妙蓮華》四念處及因緣法 (第1042集) (法華經•化城喻品第七)   周一 3月 13, 2017 1:32 am

20170313《靜思妙蓮華》四念處及因緣法 (第1042集)
(法華經•
化城喻品

 
無明惑業遍計常,諸法蘊行無常住,凡夫執著四顛倒,計斷因緣無果報。
若沙門、婆羅門、若天、魔、梵,及餘世間所不能轉。《法華經化城喻品第七
謂是苦,是苦集,是苦滅,是苦滅道。《法華經化城喻品第七》
及廣說十二因緣法,無明緣行,行緣識,識緣名色,名色緣六入,六入緣觸,觸緣受,受緣愛,愛緣取,取緣有,有緣生,生緣老死憂悲苦惱。《法華經化城喻品第七
⊙及廣說十二因緣法:此彰所轉之境中十二因緣法。能發生者為因,助發生者為緣。此法亦名十二緣法。
⊙無明緣行:無明即迷於真實義之理、及異熟果之事,迷故起種種妄動。
⊙諸眾生現世作不善業,則招來世惡趣之果。若作有漏善業,則招來世善趣之果。以其異世成熟,是名異熟果。
⊙行緣識:妄動熏習為業種,至成熟時今生業識既捨,即引生後世異熟識。
⊙識緣名色:報識既起,攬色為身,即有色、受、想、行、識之五陰。名即指受、想、行、識之四陰也。
⊙名色緣六入:由有五陰故起眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意之六入。
⊙六入緣觸:根、塵和合為觸。
⊙觸緣受:因根、塵和合而有違境、順境、不違順境之不同,遂起苦受、樂受、捨受三者之差別。
⊙受緣愛:以有受故,內身外境起於貪戀。
⊙愛緣取:愛則執著,起我、我所。
⊙取緣有:執著之業因既熟,必受後有之報。
⊙有緣生:後有之依報,厥惟身相。
⊙有生則有少壯之假相,故其對待之相為衰老;有生則有滅,故其對待之相為死,有生則有苦苦、壞苦、行苦之互相逼迫,故有憂悲苦惱:故曰生緣老死憂悲苦惱。
 
【證嚴上人開示】

「無明惑業遍計常,諸法蘊行無常住,凡夫執著四顛倒,計斷因緣無果報。」
 
無明惑業遍計常
諸法蘊行無常住
凡夫執著四顛倒
計斷因緣無果報
 
瞭解?在這字面上,一接觸就感覺深。是啊!攸關我們的生死,當然是很深。
 
人生如何來,如何去,在日常生活中,感覺上,日常生活沒什麼,卻是生死事大,我們要用心體會。過去、現在、未來,無不都是因為無明、惑、造業,在無明、惑中的造業,就是我們的觀念、思想,也就是一起念頭,就是這樣遍計,普遍去計較。為什麼計較呢?因為有了,我認為這些東西都是真實,永遠常,永遠我的,這種「遍計常」。其實,人生無常,我們卻是,以為永遠永遠都是常,不知無常,所以我們會常常都是這樣計較,所以惹來了很多無明、惑業。
 
這就是「諸法蘊行無常住」,我們不知道,諸法蘊行其實是無常,我們每天所過的日子,都是在無常中過,時間分秒不知覺。時間無常住,昨天已經過了,今天的時間也無常住,秒秒分分過去。卻是,不只是時間,看,現在天還未亮,不過它還是在我們不知不覺中,天也會亮起來。這是地球運行,公轉、自轉,就是不斷在運轉,我們也不知,這是非常微細的行動。
 
這我們常常說過,大乾坤這樣,日月運行,我們的身體也是這樣,新陳代謝不斷。從小,小時候,年幼一直到年輕,一直到中年、老年,身體隨著時間,不斷新陳代謝,這樣過去,那就是壯年、老年了,我們自己也是不知覺。這叫做「諸法蘊行」,一切都是集蘊在一起,不斷這樣微細的無常、不住,一直過去。所以「蘊行無常」,我們自己都不覺知。
 
凡夫四倒:
無常計常
無我計我
不樂計樂
不淨計淨
 
「凡夫執著四顛倒」。我們是凡夫,所以我們常常都是,這樣執著著——「常」,無常計常;「我」,無我計我;「樂」,不樂計樂;這「常樂我淨」,「不淨計淨」。我們一直都是這樣顛倒。
 
身體,光是說我們自己的身體,我們要「觀身不淨」。在四念處中,我們的身體是不乾淨的。我們的心也是不斷起落,「觀心無常」。我們「觀法無我」,法也是無我。所以,不淨的身體、無常的心,這樣隨著日常生活在計著一切,這就是在顛倒中。
 
所以我們一直「計斷因緣」,有了這樣的計著、計常,或者是住在顛倒中,因為這樣,所以我們(對)因緣撥無因果,不怕因果、不知因果,不知道我們起心動念、舉步動足,所造作一切,無不都是因緣果報,這樣在輪轉。其實,一切實在無常,不可去計著,我們若是計著,永遠永遠都是迷。所以用心,這是常常在說的法,大家要用心去體會。
 
「無明惑業遍計(常)」。普遍,其實我們的心到底在哪裡呢?不過,我們是四處亂跑的心,哪個地方,我的心忽焉在遠方,忽焉在近處,心力就是這樣普遍,這樣在遍計,去計較。很多很多不需要計較,我們偏偏去計較,因為不知道無常的道理,不知道我們人人,生活在這種顛倒妄想中。這都是我們在日常生活的顛倒,我們卻是不瞭解因緣果報,惹來了很多生死煩惱啊!要多用心體會。
 
前面的經文,「若沙門、婆羅門、若天、魔、梵,及餘世間所不能轉。」
 
若沙門、婆羅門、
若天、魔、梵
及餘世間所不能轉
《法華經化城喻品第七
 
這段文,諸梵天王向佛請求轉法輪,因為唯有大覺者才能很透徹法,諸法實相。請佛來轉法輪,唯有佛、大覺者,才有辦法徹底了悟,為我們分析人生的道理。所以,大通智勝佛,看因緣具足了,「即時三轉十二行法輪」。
 
謂是苦
是苦集
是苦滅
是苦滅道
《法華經化城喻品第七》
 
這四諦,四諦那就是苦、集、滅、道,「謂是苦,是苦集,是苦滅,是苦滅道」。這我們都昨天解釋過了,現在再接下來,就是「及廣說十二因緣法」,除了四諦十二行,因為他三轉四諦,所以叫做「三轉十二行法輪」。
 
再接下來就是,「及廣說十二因緣法,無明緣行,行緣識,識緣名色,名色緣六入,六入緣觸,觸緣受,受緣愛,愛緣取,取緣有,有緣生,生緣老死憂悲苦惱。」
 
及廣說十二因緣法
無明緣行
行緣識
識緣名色
名色緣六入
六入緣觸
觸緣受
受緣愛
愛緣取
取緣有
有緣生
生緣老死憂悲苦惱
《法華經化城喻品第七
 
這樣十二因緣的循環,我們要知道,所以我們要去瞭解十二因緣法。
 
及廣說
十二因緣法:
此彰所轉之境中
十二因緣法
能發生者為因
助發生者為緣
此法亦名十二緣法
 
每個人的生死,沒有離開這十二因緣。「能發生者為因,助發生者為緣」。日常生活中,什麼事情發生,開始發生,那個初發生,必有因,助這個因來發生,就是緣。我們起一念心,就因為六根去緣六塵境,就是這樣,因為我們的眼根為因,外面的境界為緣,這就是「能發生者為因,助發生者為緣」。我們的眼睛若不去看,外面的境界就沒有那個緣,引入我們的識來,所以這就是因緣會合。這個識去遍計,就面說的「遍計」,普遍去緣,識去分別。所以,法就是十二因緣法。
 
詳細要解釋十二因緣法,要用心聽了。第一就是「無明緣行」。
 
無明緣行:
無明即
迷於真實義之理
及異熟果之事
迷故起種種妄動
 
無明,就是我們的心,凡夫迷著,迷於真實的道理,都迷了,真實的理,我們迷失了,而去取著異熟果。異熟果,就是日常生活中在善惡行為,過去生、今生、來生,我們今生所受的果,是過去生的善惡,引來了我們的依正二報。我現在有這樣的緣,與大家結這麼多好緣,這是,大家看起來這是果。其實是緣在過去生,過去生有這樣的緣,所以這一生中起一念心,這一念起,出家去了。那個起初的那念心,幾十年的時間,結果與大家招來了這麼多的緣,這若沒有過去生那些緣,怎麼會來到今生這樣的果呢?
 
但是,我這輩子有苦有樂,也遇到很多的障礙,受到很多煩惱的過程,也是常常想,這是過去生的業緣。這就是有善惡不同,善歸善的因,惡歸惡的緣,所以因緣果報在我這輩子裡。我們人人都一樣,不是只有我而已。這叫做異熟果報,過去各不同的善惡因緣,成熟了,在這輩子的果現前。
 
諸眾生現世
作不善業
則招來世惡趣之果
若作有漏善業
則招來世善趣之果
以其異世成熟
是名異熟果
 
我們這輩子,我們自己也要知道,到底我做了多少惡呢?起心動念、待人接物有過錯嗎?或者是我有累積多少是對的、有利益人間多少的善嗎?這是今生的因與緣,這還沒有成熟,要等到來生來世。今生所造作的,還沒有完全的成熟,這個成熟的因,就是來世的果,到了我們這輩子告一段落,才是真正完全,那就是帶到來世。所以說「異熟果」,過去所造作的善惡業,現在成熟在我們這輩子的果;這輩子善惡,就是帶到來生成熟的果。那就是過去、現在、未來,這生死因緣中,我們所造作的,無不都是事相。
 
所以因為我們都迷了,「迷故起種種妄動」。我們就是自己不知道,因、緣、果、報,所以我們隨著因緣果報,一直就是在迷中,這樣種種妄動。我們這輩子是不是這樣迷,這樣懵懵懂懂?起了懵,不清楚,是非不清楚,這樣的動作業力呢?所以叫做無明。無明,不知道,我們就是造作,那就是由不得自己牽帶來生。常常說,由不得自己,我們今生所造作的業,來生我們到底要去哪裡呢?我們就不知道了。就要看我們今生此世所造作,這是由不得自己,這叫做凡夫。
 
因為「無明緣行」,再「行緣識」,就是這樣牽引,妄動來熏習,這就是業。
 
行緣識:
妄動熏習為業種
至成熟時
今生業識既捨
即引生後世異熟識
 
我們過去生到現在,我們妄動來熏習我們的業。過去既無明了,「一念無明生三細,境界為緣長六粗」,這都是常常說,就是這樣在無明。「行」,過去的行動、我們現在的行為;過去的行動所作為的,既然在今生,我們今生也是同樣又再妄動,過去習氣的熏習,帶到我們今生,所以「妄動熏習」。常常跟大家說,沒有什麼行好修,是我們的習氣,我們的習氣要斷,煩惱,就是要斷習氣。
 
所以,因為「妄動熏習為業」,我們的習氣來造了種種的業,一直到了成熟時,「今生業識既捨」,我這輩子已經,這輩子己經結束了,不得不捨棄我今生的身體。剛剛說的,我們所造作的,還沒有成熟,要到這輩子結束,這個時候才叫做成熟。不過,這個業已經成了,今生的緣也盡了,已成熟,業緣盡,這輩子結束了,所以「業識既捨」,今生結束,「即引生後世異熟果」。
 
剛剛已經說得很清楚了,這輩子捨掉,異熟果,是善是惡呢?這輩子已經結束,就是帶到來生了。「引生後世異熟識」,就帶去來世了。「故曰行緣識」,行就緣識,由不得自己就投胎去了,這由不得自己。「識緣名色」。
 
識緣名色:
報識既起
攬色為身
即有色、受、想、
行、識之五陰

即指受、想、行、
識之四陰也
 
依報到底在哪裡?常常跟大家說過了,與哪一對父母結緣,那一對父母交合時,我們就已經定了,與那一對父母,已經是緣成熟了,所以十月懷胎已經完成,我們就要捨此投彼。所以人生無常,就是這樣。「報識既起」,依報的識,已經成熟了,既然就開始了,所以「攬色為身」。色在懷孕時,就慢慢成,我們的六根,不斷不斷就是已經成。
 
「色」就是,還沒完全成為人體之前。你若是看婦產科,看看,到底我的身體怎麼了,婦產科一檢查,「你有了!」有了,那時候不是六根完成,只是一團才開始像泡,精血混合時,如燙傷起泡一樣,那個泡裡面慢慢就混濁了,如膿包一樣,慢慢就有肉,慢慢形成,但是還未生出六根,所以叫做「色」。
 
有那個東西在母親的子宮裡面,這叫做「色」,慢慢才成為身。看他的頭,有看到一個頭形了,有看到手的形,有看到腳的形,慢慢這個「色」,完成了我們的六根,眼、耳、鼻、舌,以及我們的手腳,全部六根完成,這樣叫做「身」。身體開始就「有」了。
 
「即有」,有了身,就有了,真的是有色、受、想、行、識。叫做五蘊,也叫做五陰。所以,這都是,色、受、想、行、識,會納到識來,所造作的一切,就是歸納到(第)八識,善惡異熟,善惡歸納在識,所以叫做「識緣名色」。
 
從「名」就是指,「受、想、行、識之四陰」,這樣,外面的名稱,以及我們懷胎開始的,那個肉團開始,這都稱為「名」。有了,有身(孕)。
 
所以「名色」,有了名、有了色,就是我們的身體就緣「六入」。
 
名色緣六入:
由有五陰
故起眼、耳、鼻、
舌、身、意之六入
 
在肉團那時候,就開始慢慢形成了六根,──眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意完成,這叫做「六入」。我們就是要這樣,不斷一直緣下去,因為有這個身體,眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意完成,六根完成,我們才能緣外面的境界,這樣叫做「六入」。
 
眼睛吸收到外面的色塵,耳朵聽到外面的聲塵,鼻子聞到外面等等,去分別,「這個這麼臭,我很討厭」,那就是意識去分別。「這很漂亮,我喜歡」,也是意識去分別。所以說,「六塵境界」都是因為「名色」所緣來,讓我們的六根塵完成,所以叫做「六入」。會收納外面的境界,這叫做「六入」,全將外面的境界收納進來。
 
收納外面的境界,「六入」就緣「觸」。
 
六入緣觸:
根、塵
和合為觸
 
「觸」,「根塵和合」就是「觸」。眼根緣外面的色塵,我們的身所感觸到的,是硬的、是軟的,碰到身體會痛的,是硬的,軟的,坐久了會痠,這很軌。總之,我們的身體所接觸到的一切,陡的地方要爬,低的地方要下,這都是身體所接觸到的等等。
 
我們的根,身根,身體的根,與外面的塵境所接觸到的,這就是「六入緣觸」。外面所有的境界,一切一切就是因為感觸。很舒服,或者是不舒服,這就是我們的身體,六根俱全,所去感受的,這叫做,觸。
 
下面就是「觸緣受」。
 
觸緣受:
因根、塵和合
而有違境、順境、
不違順境之不同
遂起苦受、樂受、
捨受三者之差別
 
受,就是「因根、塵和合,而有違境、順境、不違順境之不同」。就是我們不歡喜的境界,就是違背我們的境界,逆叫做違境,就是逆,逆我們的心意,我們不喜愛的境界;或者是順,順意的境界,這樣不違順境,無逆、無順,這樣這個境界各有不同。
 
是順境或者是不順境呢?逆境就起苦受。我不喜愛,但是,偏偏非接受不可,這就是「苦」。或者是很多人間,我們看得到的苦難,不論是天災造成的、人禍造成的,或者是我們受報,由不得自己的人間苦,這都是隨著苦,違背我們想要的境界,都叫做苦,苦受。
 
順的,叫做「樂受」。或是不苦不樂,平平的,這叫做不順不逆,就是這樣平平的,我們的人生,不離開這三受。不順不逆,叫做「捨受」,就是平平的;我也不覺得很快樂,我也不覺得很歡喜,就是平平的,這叫做「捨受」。就是苦受、樂受、捨受,這三受的差別,叫做「觸緣受」。我們的感受,不離開這三種。
 
受緣愛:
以有受故
內身外境
起於貪戀
 
「受緣愛」,因為有感受,那就是「內身外境,起於貪戀」,有了感受,就會,這是我愛的,所以我就要不斷求、求、求,貪戀。求不到的,戀著在那個地方,貪戀,「故受緣愛」。
 
因為我愛,因為愛就起貪,貪就起戀著,這樣這種戀戀不捨,就又造了多少苦呢?人間就是這樣在戀著,貪愛戀著,所以這個愛,是我們的苦根。
 
所以,這個愛就緣取,因為受,感受到,就戀著於愛,愛就貪,貪就想要取了。
 
愛緣取:
愛則執著
起我、我所
 
所以世間很多爭取,小的是各人的爭取,大的是引起社會取不得的亂象。我為了要貪,我為了要取,所以,我要爭,爭取,這樣,所以社會就會亂,家庭亂、社會亂、國家亂。這種因貪愛而取著,造成了人間的苦。
 
取得到的就快樂,取不到是苦。所以「愛則執著」,就是很執著,我就是要這樣,我就是要取,我就是要愛。所以「起我、我所」,這是我的,所以我能通通,我都想要取得。這種「我」最大,從家庭、社會,一直到國家,都有各個不同貪愛取著,引起亂。多少人禍,不就是這樣嗎?所以,因為取,為了貪取,這種鬥爭就生起。
 
取緣有:
執著之業因既熟
必受後有之報
 
所以因為這樣,「取緣有」,就開始有了。有什麼呢?「執著之業因既熟,必受後有之報。」做很多貪取爭鬥的結果,不是勝,便是敗。這種後面的成熟,就是因為這種爭取,所得來的後果,這就是「業因既熟」,結果是什麼呢?人禍啊!天下災難偏多,這就是我們眾生共業,所取得的現在的業因。
 
各人的業因,就是我們造作的異熟果,善惡的果若成熟,我們就受到「後有」。現在造作,後生受。所以「取緣有」,因為你要取,所以你就會去造作一些,很多的無明,是善、是惡的業,造了很多。若是善的,就得福報;惡的,就得惡報,這是必然的道理。
 
所以「有緣生」。
 
有緣生:
後有之依報
厥惟身相
 
「後有」,這種已經,業已經造成了,「後有之依報」,就是這樣,就是因為我們的身體,這個身相,有了這個身相;我們造作一切,又再牽引來生的依報。我們是什麼樣的身相呢?我們就不知道。是會在三惡道呢?或者是在畜生道?在地獄受苦,或者是在畜生中,或者是在人間的苦難等等,都由不得自己。
 
這個身體是過去生給我們的,我們現在所造作的,未來我們到底是什麼身形,四生五道,到底我們要往哪裡去呢?我們不知道。就是已經造作,已經有了,有了業,所以帶業來生。所以「有緣生」,是帶業來生。
 
「生緣老死憂悲苦惱」。
 
有生
則有少壯之假相
故其對待之相
為衰老
有生則有滅
故其對待之相
為死
有生則有苦苦、
壞苦、行苦之
互相逼迫
故有憂悲苦惱
故曰
生緣老死憂悲苦惱
 
業帶來了生,我們「有生則有少壯之假相」。我們年輕時,在哪裡呢?我現在自己要找少年,也不可得,沒有了,已經過去了,這種少壯就是假相。青春少年是假的,若是真實有,是常,我應該永遠就是那麼年輕。就是無常,已經新陳代謝,不得不老。所以,這個假相,老,能老,也常住在老嗎?也不是。老,後面的結束,也不知將來,將來當然若還是人身,又是開始接觸到世間,同樣受大空氣刺痛了全身,痛苦而來。這就是生老病死的循環,一切都是假相。
 
「故其對待之相,為衰老」,少年的未來就是衰老。就是這樣就老了。
 
「有生則有滅」,有生就有滅,「故其對待之相為死」。那就是死了,這是人生自然法則,很自然的事情。「有生則有苦(苦)」,有生來到人間,痛苦就來了;痛苦,接下來還有「壞苦」。世間一切萬物,「生、住、異、滅」,有壞,「成、住、壞、空」,有壞,所以,有變易、有壞,這叫做「壞苦」。
 
「行苦」,行就是無常,有這樣的變易,壞,就是因為有行蘊。有行,無常的行蘊,他不知不覺,就是這樣的過去,這樣的現在不住還是有未來。所以,「苦苦、壞苦、行苦之互相逼迫」,後面逼著前面的,過去,這樣不斷念念,秒秒都是,後念推著前念過去,同樣的道理。所以「有憂悲苦惱,故生緣老死憂悲苦惱」。
 
很多,都是在這,「十二因緣法」所累積起來的。希望我們大家,真正在這輩子的時間,我們要知道異熟果報。我們到底造什麼因、緣,所得到的果報,因果循環。善有善報,惡有惡報,時間未到,不是因果不報。所以,這就要看我們的因緣若成熟,這輩子結束,緣生來世,這種四生五道不斷循環,就是不離開這「十二因緣法」。
 
用心,用心在當下,「把握當下,恆持剎那」,這就是要大家,把我們的心顧好,不要偏差。我們行善,對準的方向,我們不要偏差了。一點點的偏差,無明就帶動我們一錯百錯,這樣沒完沒了,這種「十二因緣」,是不斷緣下去。所以,不要有貪戀這世間的,一切形色相。我們要好好的,平時去除一切的起心動念,這種取著的心態。這必定修行者,要透徹瞭解法的起源,這樣我們才能有斷生死的機會。這必定要時時多用心。


月亮 在 周一 3月 13, 2017 4:44 pm 作了第 1 次修改
回頂端 向下
檢視會員個人資料
月亮
版主
版主
avatar

文章總數 : 18184
年齡 : 64
來自 : 台中
威望 : 1628
注冊日期 : 2009-01-11

發表主題: 回復: 20170313《靜思妙蓮華》四念處及因緣法 (第1042集) (法華經•化城喻品第七)   周一 3月 13, 2017 9:10 am

回頂端 向下
檢視會員個人資料
月亮
版主
版主
avatar

文章總數 : 18184
年齡 : 64
來自 : 台中
威望 : 1628
注冊日期 : 2009-01-11

發表主題: 回復: 20170313《靜思妙蓮華》四念處及因緣法 (第1042集) (法華經•化城喻品第七)   周六 11月 25, 2017 4:22 pm

Explanations by Master Cheng-Yan
Subject: The Dharma of the 12 Links of Cyclic Existence (四念處及因緣法)
Date: March.13. 2017

“Due to our karma of ignorance and delusion, we cling to everything as permanent. All phenomena undergo infinitesimal changes and do not abide permanently. Unenlightened beings are attached to the Four Inverted Views. They cling to nihilism and believe causes and conditions bring no retributions.”

Do you understand? With this text, as soon as we read it, we feel it is profound. Indeed! It is deeply connected to our life and death, so of course it is very profound. How do we come and go in life? Our daily living feels as if it is nothing special, but birth and death are serious matters. We must put effort into comprehending them. In the past, present and future, we are always creating karma due to our ignorance and delusion. Amidst ignorance and delusion, we create karma because of our perspectives and thinking; once a single thought arises, we begin to cling to everything; we take issue over everything. Why do we take issue? It is because we have this sense of “I believe these things are real. They will always exist and always be mine.” In this way, “We cling to everything as permanent.”

In fact, life is impermanent, but we still assume that things are permanent and unchanging. We are unaware of impermanence, so we often take issue over things in this way. Thus we stir up so much karma of ignorance and delusion. So, “All phenomena undergo infinitesimal changes and do not abide permanently,” but we are not aware of it. All things undergo constant change and are in fact impermanent. As we pass the days in our lives, we are always passing them amidst impermanence. Time passes by the second, without our awareness. Time never permanently abides. Yesterday has already passed, and today will not stay either. Time passes away, second by second; however, not only time is this way. Look, now it is not dawn yet, but slowly, without us knowing it, day will break gradually. This is how Earth turns infinitesimally, how it orbits and rotates. It continues to move, but we are not aware of it. These are very subtle, infinitesimal changes. We have often discussed this.

This is what the universe is like; the sun and moon are always in motion. Our body is the same; constantly metabolizing and replenishing itself. From the time we were little, all the way to our adolescence, middle age and then old age, following the passing of time our bodies continue to metabolize as we grow older. We reach our prime, then old age, but we ourselves are not aware of these changes. This is the meaning of “All phenomena undergo infinitesimal changes.” All of these changes are aggregated together, constantly in this state of impermanence, never remaining the same, constantly passing away. So, with “infinitesimal changes, [they] do not abide permanently.” We ourselves are not aware of this.

“Unenlightened beings are attached to the Four Inverted Views.” We are unenlightened beings, so we are often attached like this, seeing what is impermanent as permanent, seeing a non-existent self as an existing self and seeing what is not joyful as joyful. With permanence, joy, self, and purity, we “see what is impure as pure.” We are always so backwards in our views. Just speaking of our own bodies, we must “contemplate the body as impure.” From the Fourfold Mindfulness, we know our bodies are impure and our minds are constantly fluctuating. We “contemplate the mind as impermanent” and “contemplate all things as being without self.” All phenomena are also without an existent self. So, with an impure body and an impermanent mind, throughout our daily living, we cling to everything around us. This is how we live with inverted views. We constantly “cling to nihilism and believe causes and conditions” [have no retribution]. We have this kind of attachment and cling to permanence or abide in inverted views. Because of this, we deny the law of karma. We are not afraid or aware of cause and effect. We are not aware that every thought that arises, every action we take and everything that we do, all follows the law of cause and effect and continues in this cycle.

In fact, everything is truly impermanent; we cannot be attached to it. If we are stubbornly attached, then we will always be deluded. So, we must be mindful. These are teachings we often discuss. Everyone must mindfully seek to realize them. “Due to our karma of ignorance and delusion, we cling to everything as permanent.” We do this everywhere. Actually, where exactly is our mind? With our mind that runs around here and there, wherever we are, our mind may instantly go to a faraway place and then suddenly be somewhere near. The mind’s power is to be everywhere like this, so we cling to everything and take issue over it. There are so many things that we do not need to get upset over, yet we always choose to take issue over them, because we do not understand the principle of impermanence. We are not aware that all of us are living with such inverted and deluded views. These are inverted views in our daily living. We do not yet understand karmic cause and effect, so we stir up many afflictions over life and death. We should be mindful in comprehending this.

The previous passage states, “Sramanas, Brahmins, heavenly begins, Brahma kings and all others in the world are unable to turn it.”

This passage is about all the Brahma kings asking the Buddha to turn the Dharma-wheel. Because only the Great Enlightened One could thoroughly comprehend the Dharma, the ultimate truth of all Dharma, they asked the Buddha to turn the Dharma-wheel. Only the Buddha, the Great Enlightened One could thoroughly understand and awaken to, the analyze for us, the principles of life. So, Great Unhindered Wisdom Superior Buddha saw that the causes and conditions were complete. “Thus He immediately began the Three Turnings and Twelve Applications of the Dharma-wheel.”

These are the Four Noble Truths, suffering, causation, cessation and the Path. “He spoke of suffering, the causation of suffering, the cessation of suffering and the path to cessation of suffering.”

We explained all of this yesterday. Now, the next passage states, “He then extensively taught the Dharma of the Twelve Links of Cyclic Existence.” This was after the Twelve Applications of the Four Noble Truths. He explained the Four Noble Truths three times, so these are “the Three Turnings and.” “Twelve Applications of the Dharma-wheel.”

Next, “He extensively taught the Dharma of the Twelve Links of Cyclic Existence. Ignorance gives rise to volitional formation and volitional formation to consciousness. Consciousness gives rise to name and form, name and form give rise to the six entrances, the six entrances give rise to contact, contact gives rise to feeling, feeling gives rise to craving, craving gives rise to grasping, grasping gives rise to becoming, becoming gives rise to birth, and birth gives rise to the worry, sadness and distress of aging and death.”

This is the cycle of the Twelve Links. We should know this. So, we must understand the teachings of the Twelve Links of Cyclic Existence.

He then extensively taught the Dharma of the Twelve Links of Cyclic Existence: Of the states taught in this chapter, this is explaining the Twelve Links of Cyclic Existence. What can give rise to something is the cause. What assists in this happening is the condition. So, this teaching is also called the Twelve Links of Causes and Conditions.

Everyone’s cyclic existence are inseparable from these Twelve Links of Causes and Conditions. “What can give rise to something is the cause. What assists in this happening is the condition.” In our daily living, whatever happens, when it starts to happen, there has to be a cause giving rise to it. What assists this cause arising is the condition. A thought arises in us because our Six Roots connect to the Six Dusts. This is how it is. Our eye-root is the cause, and external states are the conditions. So, “What can give rise to something is the cause. What assists in this happening is the condition.” If we do not look with our eyes, there will be no conditions for external states to enter our consciousness. So, this is causes and conditions coming together. Then our consciousness will cling to everything. We previously said we cling to everything. We make connections everywhere, and our consciousness begins to discriminate. So, this Dharma is the Twelve Links of Cyclic Existence.

Now we are going to explain the Twelve Links of Cyclic Existence in detail. Mindfully listen to this teaching! The first is, “Ignorance gives rise to volitional formation.”

Ignorance gives rise to volitional formation: Ignorance is being deluded as to the principles of true meaning and the matters of different karmic fruitions. Due to delusion, we give rise to all kinds of confused thoughts.

Ignorance refers to the fact that the minds of unenlightened beings are deluded. We are confused about the principles of truth; we have lost the true principles and instead cling to different karmic fruitions. Theses different karmic fruitions are the results of good and evil behaviors in our daily living, whether in our past, present or future lives. The retributions we experience in this life are from good and evil deeds in past lives. These lead to our circumstantial and direct retributions. Now I have these affinities to form so many good connections with everyone. This might seem like fruits to everyone, but actually they are conditions from past lives. In past lives we had such affinities, so in this life, a thought arose. With this thought, I became a monastic. That initial thought combined with the time of the past few decades to result in the many good affinities that I have with you all. Without these conditions from past lives, how would there be such fruits in this life? However, in my life, there is suffering and joy, as well as many obstacles that I have encountered. Over the course of facing many afflictions, I have often thought that these are karmic conditions from past lives. Good and evil [karma] are different. Good causes are good causes; evil conditions are evil conditions. So, I face these karmic retributions in this life. This applies to every one of us. I am not the only like this. These are called different karmic fruitions. Different causes and conditions of good and evil from the past have matured, and the fruits manifest in this life.

All sentient beings in this lifetime create negative karma and thus bring about the effect of falling into evil realms in future lifetimes. If they do flawed good deeds in this life, they bring about the effect of being born in good realms in future lifetimes. As these [seeds] of different lifetimes mature, these are called different karmic fruitions.

In our present lifetime, we ourselves must be aware of exactly how many negative things we have done. In the thoughts that I give rise to and in dealing with matters and people, have I made mistakes? How much good have I accumulated in my actions? How much have I done to benefit the world? These are causes and conditions in this lifetime. They have not ripened yet. We have to wait until future lifetimes. What we have created and done in this life has not fully matured yet. When these causes ripen, they become fruits in future lifetimes. When our present lifetime comes to an end, they will then truly be fully formed and will be brought to the next lifetime. So, they are called “different karmic fruitions.”

The good and evil karma created in the past now ripen as fruit in this lifetime. Good and evil karma from this lifetime will be brought to the next life to ripen as fruitions. This is past, present and future. In this cyclic existence of causes and conditions, all the karma we create manifests as matters and appearances. Because we are all deluded, “Due to delusion, we give rise to all kinds of confused thoughts.” We ourselves are not aware of causes, conditions, effects and retributions. So, we follow karmic cause and effect and constantly remain in delusion. We have all sorts of confused thinking. Are we in such delusion in this lifetime? Do we have this lack of understanding? When we are confused, we lack clarity. We are unclear over what is right or wrong. Then don’t our actions create [negative] karma? This is called ignorance. We are ignorant and unaware, so we create karma though our actions. Then without our control we are carried into the next lifetime.

We often say, “It is beyond our control.” With the karma we created in this lifetime, where will we go in our next lifetime? We do not know. It all depends on what we do in this lifetime. Then it is beyond our control. Thus we are unenlightened beings. Because “Ignorance gives rise to volitional formations,” next “volitional formation [leads] to consciousness.” As these give rise to one another, confused thoughts permeate us, which become karma.

Volitional formation [leads] to consciousness: Confused thoughts permeate us and become karmic seeds. When they mature and the karmic consciousness of our present lifetime ends, they will give rise to the consciousness of different karmic fruitions in future lifetimes.

From our past lives to the present, our confused thoughts have permeated our karma. We were ignorant in the past. “An ignorant thought creates the Three Subtleties. External states lead to the Six Coarse Marks.” This is what we often talk about. As we remain in ignorance, “volitional formation”, actions from the past, manifest as our actions in the present. These were our actions in the past. Now that we have come to this lifetime, in this life, we again have confused thoughts. Permeated by habitual tendencies in the past, we have brought these into this lifetime. Therefore, “Confused thoughts permeate us.” I often tell everyone that there is nothing for us to practice, other than working on our habitual tendencies. We must eliminate our habitual tendencies. To eliminate afflictions, we must eliminate our negative habitual tendencies. Because “Confused thoughts permeate us and become karmic [seeds], our habitual tendencies lead us to create all kinds of karma, which then ripen. “When the karmic consciousness of our present lifetime ends,” when this present lifetime ends, we have to abandon the physical body of this life. As we just mentioned, what we have created has not ripened yet. It is only when our present lifetime ends that these can be called mature. However, the karma has already been created. When the conditions for this life are used up, karma matures and conditions come to an end. This lifetime will come to an end. So, “Karmic consciousness ends.” This lifetime ends. “This leads to the rise of different karmic fruitions in future lifetimes.” We just explained this clearly. When this lifetime is over, will our karmic fruitions be good or evil? When this lifetime has ended, we bring our karma to a future life. “This will give rise to the consciousness of different karmic fruitions in future lifetimes.” We will be led to our future life. “Thus it says volitional formation gives rise to consciousness.” Volitional formation gives rise to consciousness, and we cannot help but enter [next life’s] womb; this is beyond our control.


“Consciousness gives rise to name and form.” Consciousness gives rise to name and from: Once our retribution-consciousness arises, it takes form as the body; this is the existence of the Five Skandhas of form, feeling, perception, action, consciousness. Name: This refers to the Four Skandhas of feeling, perception, action and consciousness.

Where exactly is our circumstantial retribution? I have often said to everyone that we formed affinities with our parents, so when that pair of parents comes together, our [direction] is decided; our affinity with that pair of parents has already ripened. So, the 40-week pregnancy comes to term. We have to leave this life for the next. Life is impermanent; this is how it is. “Once our retribution-consciousness arises” means the consciousness of our circumstantial retribution has ripened, therefore this process will begin. So, “It takes form as the body.” During pregnancy, our form gradually develops; our Six Roots continuously [develop] until they are formed. “Form” refers to the human body before it is fully developed. When someone sees the gynecologist, [she asks], “What is going on with my body?” On examination, the doctor says, “You’re pregnant.” By that point in the pregnancy, the Six Roots have not fully formed. The fetus is just starting, like a little bubble. When the sperm and egg unite, it is like a blister from a burn wound. Things gradually mix within that blister, like a pus-filled sore. Gradually, flesh is formed and takes shape. So, when the Six Roots are yet to be formed, that is called “form.” This thing within the mother’s uterus is called “form.” It will gradually develop in to the body. We see the fetus’s head and body begin to form. Then the arms and legs start to take shape. Gradually, this “form” completes our Six Roots, including our eyes, ears, nose and tongue, along with hands and feet. All the Six Roots are fully formed. This is called the “body.” The body begins to come into “existence.” “This is the existence.” With the existence of a body, we have this; we truly have form, feeling, perception, action, consciousness. They are called the Five Skandhas or Aggregates.

So, among form, feeling, perception, action, consciousness, everything returns to our consciousness. All the karma that we create is stored in the eighth consciousness. All ripened fruits, good or evil, are stored in this consciousness. So, “Consciousness gives rise to name and form.” “Name” refers to “the Four skandhas of feeling, perceptions, action, consciousness.” In this manner, both this external label and that clump of flesh at the start of a pregnancy are called “name.” With pregnancy, a body has come into existence, so there are “name and form.” With name and form, our body gives rise to the “six entrances.”

Name and form give rise to the six entrances: Due to the Five Skandhas, the six entrances of eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind arise.

From being a clump of flesh, we gradually begin to form the Six Roots. Eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind are formed. They are the “six entrances.” Then we continuously want to make connections. Because we have this body, eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind are formed. Once the Six Roots are formed, we are able to connect to external states. These are called the six entrances.

The eyes take in the sense object of form, the ears take in the sense object of sound, the nose smalls scents and so on. Then we discriminate “This smells bad, I hate it.” This is our consciousness discriminating. “This is very pretty; I like it. That is also the consciousness discriminating. So, “the states of the Six Dusts” arise because of name and form allowing the Six Roots and Six Dusts to meet. So, they are called the six entrances. They can take in external conditions, so they are the six entrances. They take in all external states.

Taking in external states, the “six entrances” give rise to “contact.”

The six entrances give rise to contact: When Roots and Dusts converge, that is “contact.”

“Contact” is when “Roots and Dusts converge.” The eye-root connect to the object of form. When our body comes into contact with something, [we perceive it as] hard or soft. If it hurts our body upon contact, we call it hard. If we feel sore after sitting on it for a long time, we label it as soft. In summary, it is everything our body comes into contact with. We must climb up steep places or go down to lower places. This is all what our body connects with. Our Roots, the sensory organs of our bodies, come into contact with external sense objects. So, “The six entrances give rise to contact.” All external conditions are [experienced] because of “contact.” We may call it comfortable or uncomfortable. This is what our bodies, our complete Six Roots, feel and experience. This is called contact.

Next, “Contact give rise to feeling.”Contact give rise to feeling: When Roots and Dusts converge, we experience the different conditions as adverse, favorable or neither adverse nor favorable. Accordingly different sensations will arise, either of suffering, joy or detachment.

As for feeling, “When Roots and Dusts converge, we experience conditions as adverse or favorable.” There are conditions that we dislike, conditions that go against our wishes. If against our wishes, they are adverse conditions. They are conditions we do not like. Or, there are favorable conditions. Then there are conditions that are neither adverse nor favorable. These are neither with nor against [our wishes]. Each of these conditions is different. Are our conditions favorable or unfavorable? Unfavorable conditions give rise to suffering. “I do not like this, but I am forced to accept it.” This is suffering. In the world, there is much suffering that we can see. Whether caused by natural disasters or manmade calamities or retributions that we face, suffering in the human realm is beyond our control. This is all how we experience suffering, the conditions that go against our wishes. This is suffering, the sensation of suffering.

Favorable conditions give us the sensation of joy. Or if it is neither painful nor joyful, just average, those are neither favorable nor adverse conditions. They are just average. Our life is inseparable from these three sensations.

If neither favorable nor adverse, we feel “detachment,” which is just average. “I do not feel very happy or very joyful.” This is just average. This is called the sensation of detachment. The differences of suffering, joy and detachment, the differences between these three sensations, are why we say, “Contact gives rise to feeling.” Our feelings are always one of these three kinds.

“Feeling gives rise to craving.” Because there are feelings, “We give rise to greed and desire toward our own body and external conditions.” With feelings, there will be something that we love. So, we endlessly pursue it. This is greed and desire. When we cannot obtain it, we cling to this desire. Thus with greed and desire, it says, “Feeling gives rise to craving.” This is because [we feel] “I love this.” Because of craving, greed arises. With greed, we cling to desire, and in this manner, we are unable to let go. Then how much suffering will we create? Humans cling to desires in this manner; we become attached to things that we crave. So, this craving is the root of our suffering. Hence, this craving gives rise to grasping. Because of feeling, once we feel this way, we give rise to attachment to what we crave. With craving, greed arises, so we seek to grasp it.

Craving gives rise to grasping: With craving, one is attached and gives rise to the concept of a self and the self’s possessions.

So, in the world, there is much grasping. On the small scale, individuals fight to grasp things. On a large scale, this leads to chaos in society when people cannot obtain what they want. Because of their greed, because of their grasping, people fight for things. This causes society to be in chaos. The family, society and country are in chaos. Because of greed and craving, we grasp and cling, which leads to suffering in the world. When we grasp and get what we want, we are happy. When we do not, we suffer. So, “With craving, one is attached.” We become very attached. “I just want this.” This is our grasping and craving. So, this “gives rise to the concept of a self and the self’s possessions.” “This is mine, so I want to obtain and possess all of it.” We think, ‘“I’ am the most important.” From family, to society, to the country, there are different kinds of greed, craving, grasping and attachment leading to disorder. How many manmade calamities start this way? So, because of grasping, for the sake of greed, many such conflicts arise.

Therefore, “Grasping gives rise to becoming.” Something starts to be. What comes into existence? “Once the karmic seed of attachment has ripened, there will surely be future retribution.” The outcome from all this greed, grasping and fighting is victory or else defeat. What ripens later is because of this fighting and grasping. The outcome is that “The karmic seed of attachment has ripened.” What are the outcomes? Many manmade calamities and natural disasters. This is sentient beings’ collective karma, the karmic seeds currently being created. Everyone’s individual karmic seeds are creating our different karmic fruitions. When the fruits of good and evil ripen, we receive “future retributions.” Whatever we create now becomes future retributions. So, “Grasping gives rise to becoming.” Because we want to grasp, we act and create much karma and much ignorance. Whether good or evil, we create much karma. If good karma, we attain blessed retributions. If it is evil karma, we attain evil retributions. This is an absolute principle. So, “Becoming gives rise to birth”

Becoming gives rise to birth: Circumstantial retributions of future existence are all included in the appearance of the body.

“Future existence” means our karma has already been created. “Circumstantial retributions of future existence” are this way. This is all due to our body. With our physical body, because we have a body, we act and create all kinds of karma, which then lead to the circumstantial retributions of our future lifetimes. What will the appearance of our bodies be? We do not know. Will we be born into the Three Evil Destinies? Maybe we will be reborn in the animal realm. We may suffer in hell, or as animals or face hardship in the human realm, etc. This is all beyond our control. This body is a result of our past lives. What we do and create now determines our physical appearance in the future. In the four forms of birth and Five Destinies, where exactly will we go? We do not know. We have already acted and created [karma]. The karma has already been created, so we carry it to future existences. Thus, “Becoming gives rise to birth.” We carry our karma to future lives. “Birth gives rise to the worry, sadness and distress of aging and death.”

With birth, there will be the illusory appearances of being young and vigorous and thus the opposite appearance of aging. Whatever arises will cease, thus there is the opposite appearance [of birth], which is death. With birth, there is the suffering of suffering, suffering of decay and suffering of action. These all press in on us, so we have worry, sadness and distress. Therefore, it says that birth gives rise to the worry, sadness and distress of aging and death.

We bring our karma with us at birth. “With birth, there will be the illusory appearances of being young and vigorous.” Where have our young selves gone? If we want to look for our youth now, we cannot find it; it is gone. It is already in the past. Such appearances of being young and vigorous are illusory. Youth is illusory. If it was real and permanent, we would be forever young. But it is impermanent; our bodies age. Aging is inevitable. So, there is this illusory appearance; with aging, we may grow old, but can we stay old forever? No, we cannot. We age, but regarding the end of our life, we do not know what the future will bring. Of course, if we are still reborn as humans, we again begin to come in contact with the world. The air will prick the skin of our whole body, leading to the pain of birth. This is a cycle of birth, aging, illness and death. These are all illusory appearances,
“thus there is the opposite appearance.” In the future we will age. The future of youth is aging; we become old like this. “Whatever arises will cease.” With arising there will be ceasing. “There is the opposite appearance, which is death.” This means that we die. This is the natural law of human life. It is very natural matter. “With birth; there is the suffering of suffering.” With birth, we come to the human realm amidst pain and suffering. Next is the “suffering of decay.” For everything in the world, that which undergoes arising, abiding, changing and ceasing will decay. That which undergoes formation, existence, decay, disappearance will decay. So, there is change and there is decay. This is the “suffering of decay.” In the suffering of action, “action” refers to impermanence. There is always this change. Decay is due to the aggregate of action. With action, the aggregate of action, which is impermanence, without us knowing, life passes us by. The present never abides; the future still comes. So, “Suffering of suffering, suffering of decay and suffering of action mutually press in on each other.” Each presses on the one before it. Continuously, endlessly, thought after thought, second after second, the nest thought pushes the previous thought to the past. The principle is the same. So, “We have worry, sadness and distress Therefore, it says that birth gives rise to the worry, sadness and distress of aging and death.” So much is accumulated through the “Dharma of Twelve Links of Cyclic Existence.” I hope all of us, truly, in the span of this lifetime, can understand different karmic fruitions. We must know what causes and conditions we create and what effects and retributions we face from these. This is the cycle of cause and effect.  Good deeds lead to blessed retribution, and evil leads to evil retributions. It is just that the time may not have arrived, It is not that there is no retribution. So, this all depends on whether our karmic seeds and conditions have ripened. When this lifetime ends it gives rise to the next. Thus we endlessly cycle in the four forms of birth and the Five Destinies. This is inseparable from the “Dharma of the Twelve Links of Cyclic Existence.” Be mindful; we must be mindful of the present. Seize the present moment and sustain it forever; to do so we must take good care of our hearts. We must not deviate. We want to do good, aim in the right direction and not deviate. With a slight deviation, ignorance can lead us to many mistakes. We will continue on in that way without end. These Twelve Links of Cyclic Existence continue to give rise to each other. So, do not be greedy or attached to the forms and appearances of this world. We must earnestly, regularly eliminate the discursive thoughts that arise, like these mindsets of grasping and attachment. Spiritual practitioners must thoroughly understand the source of the Dharma. Only then will we have the chance to put an end to cyclic existence. This requires us to always be mindful.

(Source: Da Ai TV – Wisdom at Dawn program – Explanation by Master Chen-Yen)
回頂端 向下
檢視會員個人資料
 
20170313《靜思妙蓮華》四念處及因緣法 (第1042集) (法華經•化城喻品第七)
上一篇主題 下一篇主題 回頂端 
1頁(共1頁)

這個論壇的權限:無法 在這個版面回復文章
 :: 菩提法水 :: 靜思晨語 :: 靜思晨語—靜思妙蓮華-
前往: