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 20170310《靜思妙蓮華》正觀大乘障轉慧開 (第1041集) (法華經•化城喻品第七)

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發表主題: 20170310《靜思妙蓮華》正觀大乘障轉慧開 (第1041集) (法華經•化城喻品第七)   周五 3月 10, 2017 5:31 am

20170310《靜思妙蓮華》正觀大乘障轉慧開 (第1041集)
(法華經•化城喻品第七)

 
正觀大乘不思議境,障轉慧開神智爽利,樂說無礙辯說法義,圓融無滯樂說自在。
爾時,大通智勝如來受十方諸梵天王及十六王子請,即時三轉十二行法輪。《法華經化城喻品第七
若沙門、婆羅門,若天、魔、梵,及餘世間所不能轉。《法華經化城喻品第七
及餘世間所不能轉出世之法,唯佛能轉,非世所能。此諸人眾皆不能轉此法輪,以明彼佛獨能正證而遍說。
謂是苦,是苦集,是苦滅,是苦滅道。《法華經化城喻品第七》
謂是苦:此所謂是苦,通指三界依正二報而言,謂三界所得之報皆是苦也。
是苦集:依正二報之苦,何以有?以有集故。謂集合惑因與業緣以生起,致得有此果也。
惑:謂貪、瞋、癡三毒之煩惱。業:謂善業、惡業、與不善不惡之業三者,是故集為苦因。
是苦滅道:若證知此和合相續之假相,我並非真實,則我相滅,我相滅,則我所有相滅,貪欲滅則苦因滅,即集滅故苦滅。欲滅苦,必滅苦因,而後苦滅,故當修,所以能知苦斷集、得證滅之聖道。
 
【證嚴上人開示】

「正觀大乘不思議境,障轉慧開神智爽利,樂說無礙辯說法義,圓融無滯樂說自在。」
 
正觀大乘不思議境
障轉慧開神智爽利
樂說無礙辯說法義
圓融無滯樂說自在
 
法,我們若是入心,我們日常生活中所見、所聞,一切無不皆是,在大乘不思議境界中。只要我們將法真正入心來,能夠體會普天之下,事事物物,無不皆在為我們說法,人、事、物中,哪一項不是涵蓋著,無窮盡的法呢?只要我們用心。
 
但是我們人人,有很多就是,「知道了,簡單聽幾句就好了,不必聽很多,我全都瞭解了。」這是人心,只是一知半解,只聽到簡單一句,全都瞭解。什麼叫做全都瞭解呢?全都瞭解,鋪天蓋地之下的這些事物,你都知道了嗎?還不知。這麼多,無量數,不可算數的事物理,跟你說一項,你知道,可以去瞭解這一項的完整。還有其他的法,你其他的法都不知,不可以說,張三李界,我都知道了,所以全部通通知道。
 
所以我們「法門無量誓願學」,因為還有很多,法還有很多,不是只有一門通了,就門門徹,不是這樣。我們應該要知道,佛法還有很多,一件事情聽入心,還要好好去思考,聞、思、要修。我們若不修,光是聽,「知道了,從這句話,我能再把它擴展成很多,我能向大家說話了。」是啊!聞法、說法,你有辦法傳法嗎?
 
什麼叫做傳法人呢?是聽了,聽了之後,你會做,做了之後再去說。不是,聽了之後,我就會說。會說,你會做嗎?我要會做,因為有做才有得,真正做了之後的心得,從內心感覺的知,不是靠頭腦想這句道理,我知道了,我還能從聽來的再說很多。好像一把珠放在盤子上,任由我轉。不是喔!你要自己去做,做了之後,那分心得說出來。
 
所以說,「做中學,學中覺」。真真正正說我們所做、所體悟的法,才是真正是你有體悟過的。聽了之後,有思考,思考過後有受持過,真正我們要去投入、去瞭解。苦、苦,苦的法是從哪裡來?人家怎麼樣受苦,我們無法瞭解,你看到了,這個人這麼苦,有想要去救他嗎?因為我已經知道「無緣大慈」,更知道「同體大悲」,那個人在苦,如同我在苦,我不忍心那個人苦,這叫做「同體大悲」。
 
這個人的苦,我既不忍心,我應該要靠近,我應該要投入,我應該將這個人,要趕緊膚慰他、幫助他,如何讓他站得起來。他站起來了,他展開笑容了,我歡喜。我歡喜什麼呢?歡喜得到這個法,我體會,「無緣大慈,同體大悲」。
 
那個人在受苦,我用方法去接近、去付出,解開他的苦難,看他展現笑容,他幸福了,苦轉福生。苦,已經為他拔除了,他已經笑了,這叫做「無緣大慈」。看到他笑,已經離開了苦,得到幸福,這轉苦為福,這才是真正我們所修,我們所要說的、所要傳的。因為傳我所說,說我所做,所以我能傳。
 
常常說聞法者、說法者,才能傳法者。我們若光是聽而樣樣都不去做,只是用說的,這樣就全都透徹道理?還離得很遠呢!我們若是靠近苦難人,自然瞭解苦的起源,體會苦的原因。因為我們救的這個人,他,將他苦的源頭、他的原因,一五一十,我們很瞭解,如同在一個人身上讀一部經,我們體會很多,這樣去傳。你做愈多,體會愈多,這就是大乘法。
 
佛陀教育我們要瞭解天下事物,你瞭解天下事物,你就要身體力行,去廣度眾生,廣度眾生就是需要,大慈大悲、大喜大捨,入人群中去。人群的苦,我們為他拔除,讓他安穩快樂,過程要捨,捨出我們所有願意的心,這樣去付出,最後不受眾生,種種的人、事、物,再污染我們的心,這樣才是真捨。你瞭解慈、悲、喜、捨,甘願去付出,付出之後,我們一切都捨掉,沒有受任何名、利,所染著,這就是慈悲喜捨。
 
當然,開頭我們就要發願,「四弘誓願」。因為眾生無邊,瞭解無邊的苦,眾生無邊,苦難無邊,我們瞭解,所以我們要去用心發願,大愛更要無邊,有這一分大愛,我們願意去付出。但是付出要有方法,瞭解世間一切苦,所以我們要學法,來滅除眾生的苦,要從法中得來,才有辦法幫助眾生離開苦難。
 
我們學法,我們必定就要自己有修行。我們自己沒有修行,我們自己邊學、邊聽,自然我們自己沒有身體力行,那就是障礙重重。常常說「所知障」,光是知道,不肯做,知道很多,就障礙我們的道心。有聽,沒有入,未入心,就無法身體力行,只是知道了、知道了,名相知道了,說的很多,記憶有了,只是在記憶,沒有入心,所以變成了一種叫做所知障。知道很多,障礙我們也很多,驕傲、貢高,他就是分別心還很多,這種障礙、分別,這是在無明中,再加上了無明,加上了所知障。
 
不知道的時候,「我樣樣不知道,我需要瞭解。」但是,我們若光是知道,知道,知道到這個「知道」的第一層,在記憶裡,只是在記憶裡,沒有入心,所以障礙我們的道心。「我樣樣都知道了,我知道了,何必要再修什麼行呢?」像這樣,這叫做「所知障」。
 
常常說過去有人說,喝酒,我們一直教人不要喝酒,有損身體,喝酒誤大事。佛法,若知道的,他就說:「哎呀!不要執著、不要執著!喝酒就是般若湯!」我們會教人不要抽菸,抽菸對身體不好,他就說:「哎呀!抽菸,菸就是香雲蓋啊!」你們想,這樣的辯詞,所知,知在皮毛。雖然佛法要我們不要執著,他把它用在犯,犯法,再犯,犯戒,還是再犯,這就是叫做「所知障」,知道的名詞很多,知道,卻是障礙我們的道行。這就是我們要很自我警惕。
 
所以我們現在要,正觀大乘不思議境界,天地之下,法很多,這些法離我們不遠,在我們的身邊,在我們的眼前,在我們的後面,在我們的左右,無不都是法,真的是不可思議。我們若懂得用法,在人間日常生活,在我們的修行中,在我們對人、對事、對物,真正到達那一分,大慈、大悲、大喜、大捨,能夠這樣,才是真正大乘法。
 
這些梵天王,他們這樣五百萬億國,就是要來請佛轉法輪,這就是為了,不思議的大乘法來的。若能這樣,就是「障轉慧開神智爽利」。我們若能這樣,我們的心常常都會很開心,不會受煩惱將我們束縛了。我們所做的事情,自己很清楚,別人的動作是對、或不對,我們也很清楚,所以沒有受外面境界障礙我們,因為我們將障礙移轉開了,沒有障礙,沒有所知障,沒有人、我相等等。
 
樣樣的事情,我們都瞭解,人人都是有如來智性,人人都是平等,只是一時無明。我們要如何將這些無明,用方法把它撥開,讓他跟我們一樣瞭解、體會,這種障轉慧開神智爽朗,心沒有煩惱,無掛礙。將我們對佛法所知、我們所體會、我們所做過的,我們……等等,我們自然樂說無礙,能得到辯無礙、得到義無礙、詞無礙、樂說無礙,很多的無礙,就是這些法,我們通通了徹,這種沒有受到障礙。
 
要說別人的煩惱重重,我們自己的煩惱要先去除;要說別人的貪、瞋、癡,我們要將自己的,貪、瞋、癡都去除,這樣我們所說的,佛經中,的教誨,我們都差不多做到了,自然我們的神智爽朗。不會有,說出去,自己有沒有做到?還是我自己做到了,所以我這樣說,那就很自在了,神智爽朗。將我們所瞭解的,樂說無礙。你要怎麼說天下事、天下物、天下理,天下人等等,自然我們一切無礙,所以「樂說無礙,辯說法義」。
 
「圓融無滯,樂說自在」。所說的,我們都很自在,神智爽利,很歡喜。因為我們的所知障,那個障礙移轉掉了,我們用出世間的智慧,來講人間法,這種「障轉慧開」,這樣完全去除我們種種的障礙,自然我們的神智爽朗,所說的,我們能沒有障礙。當然,這要先瞭解正觀念,大乘的道理。
 
大乘的道理,我們要瞭解,不要受到那種,「樣樣不執著,我知道一點點,我能說很多」,那種利言辯詞,這不是真正的法。希望我們修行要真修行,才能說真實法,真實法才能「樂說無礙,辯說法義,圓融無滯」,才能「樂說自在」。所說的,人家能用,用得到、做得到,這樣才是真正傳法度人。這是很重要。
 
我們接下來,趕緊來看前面的(經文),「爾時,大通智勝如來受十方諸梵天王及十六王子請,即時三轉十二行法輪。」
 
爾時
大通智勝如來
受十方諸梵天王
及十六王子請
即時
三轉十二行法輪
《法華經化城喻品第七
 
那就是開始,大通智勝佛看因緣具足了,即時就轉四諦十二行法輪。人人不離開這個世間的苦,佛來人間,就是在這樣苦難的人間,來說苦諦法,讓我們人人瞭解,苦的原因如何來?所集的,很多微細的煩惱,塵沙無明的煩惱累積起來,所造作的業,大大小小就如塵沙那麼多。
 
塵沙無明惑,也塵沙無明,造作煩惱無量,所以集這麼多,(佛陀)一一為我們解釋,在苦、集。既然苦與集,集來了這麼多的煩惱,讓我們受苦,我們人人要趕緊覺悟,知道這些道理,好好來修行,走出一條菩提大直道。對的路去走,對的事去做,做對的事、走對的路,叫做智慧,那就是消除煩惱,也是行善法。
 
所以,煩惱要不斷消,善法要不斷增,這就是修行於道;滅煩惱,一方面修行於道。這就是「四諦」,法,每一項都要重複、重複不斷講,眾生才有辦法瞭解。這就是三轉,你要知,你要修,你才能夠證,所以就是三轉。
 
接下來這段(經)文說,「若沙門、婆羅門,若天、魔、梵,及餘世間所不能轉。」
 
若沙門、婆羅門
若天、魔、梵
及餘世間所不能轉
《法華經化城喻品第七
 
這麼多,「沙門、婆羅門、天、魔、梵,所有世間不能轉」。意思就是說,沙門、婆羅門都是修行者。沙門是依佛出家,受持佛法的僧尼,都是叫做沙門,他們是修行者。婆羅門也是修行者,出家修行與在家修淨行的人,這叫做沙門、婆羅門。出家的僧團、在家淨行的人,這是沙門與婆羅門。
 
「若天、魔、梵」。諸天、或者是魔王、或者是梵王,都是有大勢力,都很有力量。但是,「及餘世間所不能轉」,除了諸天、沙門、婆羅門,還有世間一切這些人,所不能轉。就是說,出世之法,唯有佛能轉,即使是諸天、世間完全沒辦法轉。
 
及餘世間
所不能轉
出世之法唯佛能轉
非世所能
此諸人眾
皆不能轉此法輪
以明彼佛
獨能正證而遍說
 
所以我們要聽聞佛法,佛陀是出世,他已經超越,超越三界,三界就是欲界、色界、無色界。他已經超越了,十界,十界,大家要記得,六凡四聖,他全都超越了。佛陀超越了十界,他才有辦法向四聖六凡說法。天、魔還是在六凡中,所以他們不能轉,唯有超越的人,才能轉。
 
所以「唯佛能轉」,因為佛在三界以上,就是宇宙,在這個空間最頂端,這個空間的超越,他所看的道理完全清楚,都能好好為我們分析。「出大微妙音」,大小(法)他完全清楚,遍空法界,無有一不能瞭解。這就是出世超越,已經遍空法界,唯佛能夠瞭解。不是世間人所能轉,唯有出世大覺者,佛才有辦法說這麼微細的法。
 
「此諸人眾皆不能轉」這個法輪,唯有佛能轉,「以明彼佛,獨能正證而遍說」。在這個大道場中,唯有佛有辦法,這樣普遍虛空法界,所有的法全都遍知能說。這就是佛已經超越了三界,甚至十法界完全超越之後,才有辦法包含一切法,來向世間人分析。所說的,開始初轉法輪,不離開世間法,世間的法就是苦、集、滅、道。
 
謂是苦
是苦集
是苦滅
是苦滅道
《法華經化城喻品第七》
 
現在這段(經)文,完全就是再很詳細轉這個境,苦諦的境界,境中的四諦法,在這個苦中所受到環境的法,我們已經瞭解了。
 
所說的苦就是「通指三界,依正二報而言」,全都包括在三界,三界的依正二報。
 
謂是苦:
此所謂是苦
通指三界
依正二報而言
謂三界所得之報
皆是苦也
 
三界,我們常常說三界,三界就是欲界、色界、無色界。但是,無色界怎麼會有苦呢?無色界在哪裡?心啊!我們的心,真的是看不到,但是心在微分的惑還在時,同樣還是有微分的貪、瞋、癡。微分,一點點,不是很多,但是這一點點、不是很多,它就會有障礙了。萬一因緣若生起,萬一因緣若會聚,這一點點的無明、惑,就會惹成再被它牽扯下去。人家說「星星之火可燎原」,看到大片的森林裡,這樣火一直燒,燒到整座山。所以微分的煩惱、惑,都要完全去除。
 
所以梵天王,一直說梵天王,既然是上上上善,又是上上淨戒,生在梵天,他為什麼還要這樣,遙遠的地方來到娑婆世界,請佛轉法輪呢?那就是因為他還有生死未斷,就是那一點點微塵的惑,還沒有去除。所以這就是我們的心理,心理若還沒有完全透徹,微分的煩惱還是在,萬一有因緣會合時,一點點就會惹成很大。所以,這種無形的煩惱還在,所以三界還是有報,所得的報全都是苦。這種還沒有完全脫離,連心理的思想,還一點點還未脫離,也是苦。所以「是苦集」。
 
是苦集:
依正二報之苦
何以有
以有集故
謂集合
惑因與業緣以生起
致得有此果也
 
苦,苦在依、正二報。我們有一段時間,也一直在解釋依、正二報。我們如何來人間?人間為何是這樣的環境?為何生在這個國家,為何生在那個國家?在所依報、所生的國土裡,有的人一生下來,苦不堪啊!
 
看到辛巴威那個環境,又想到那時候的衣索比亞,怎麼全都那麼苦,連要喝一口水都這麼苦啊!所喝的水都是混濁的,在那種牛羊在那個地方喝、在那個地方拉,這麼骯髒的地方,他們也要去取水,在那個地方現場舀起來就喝下去了,因為要取個水,要走九十多分鐘的路。這是在辛巴威。
 
大人,媽媽取水,不夠,兒子八九歲也要跟她去取水。那個水,五六公斤重的水,這樣拿起來放在兒子的頭頂上。兒子頭上頂著那桶水,這樣濺出來,她將它裝得滿滿的,水還會滿出來,這樣不行,再拿下來,捨不得倒掉多少水,再拿上來,動一下,水同樣又流出來。兒子就趕緊,把自己頭上的水再拿下來,放在地上,桶子濕,沙土沾在桶子底部,他拿起來,再把沙撥一撥,再放回頭上,又濕又沾土的沙,頭上頂著這桶水,超過五公斤多重。
 
這個孩子從六歲開始,就是這樣,一直到現在十歲,每天一早,天未亮就跟著媽媽來,就是這樣一直取水,水取回到家,要走九十分鐘,之後,只是泡個玉米粉,用手抓一抓、捏一捏,塞進嘴裡幾顆,就趕緊跑。跑去哪裡呢?讀書。
 
讀書,還讀得不錯,只有數學較差。讀完書要趕緊再跑,跑回來,下午還要再去取一次水。一出去就是九十分鐘,熱,很熱,喘吁吁。看到這樣,這是這個孩子,出生就是苦,五六歲就要參加,大人生活中困難的苦,一直到現在。這個孩子,雷蒙,看他在讀書,又是這麼會讀書。全班學生總共百分之七十以上,和雷蒙這個孩子一樣,都是這樣,一大早跟著母親。
 
這依報,就是出生就在那個地方。有福的孩子一出生,到了八九歲,父親還背著,到了中學,父親還用車子載,載去學校讀書。你們想,這個依報怎麼差那麼多呢?他有辦法選擇嗎?若有辦法選擇,他不會,絕對不會選擇去辛巴威,也不會選擇去苦難的地方。
 
有些孩子,這種依報,還有他自己的正報,小時候是這麼好命,長大是不是這樣,一輩子啣著金湯匙來?這個過程是不是順利長大,單單純純,在這種正常的生活中,懂得知福、惜福,學人間的道理,成就未來社會的棟梁,是不是安分守己呢?不知道。
 
若沒有遇到好緣,他的正報,有福無修,修羅道,這樣也是苦。自己的心起煩惱,自己的行為不端正,惹來了家庭的煩惱,惹來了社會的混亂等等,這就是自己的正報。所以,這依、正二報,真的是苦不堪。為什麼會這樣呢?就是「集」,有了「集」,過去生中等等的集而來。所以「集」是什麼東西呢?就是惑。哪怕你是微分、稍微的惑,因緣一來,這個惑,不斷製造煩惱、複製無明,所以就去造業了。
 
業的因緣,惡因、惡緣,他就來這裡依報、正報。這就是我們在懵懂中,在造業、造因,所以有這樣的苦報,就是因為惑而來的。這個「惑」,就是從「貪、瞋、癡」,三毒的煩惱,這樣引導我們,去造作一切一切的業力。這就是惡業受苦。
 
惑:
謂貪、瞋、癡
三毒之煩惱
業:
謂善業、惡業與
不善不惡之業三者
是故集為苦因
 
這個善惡業,所造作的就是善業、惡業,或者是「與不善不惡(之)業」,有這三種業。業,向惡的就是去造惡業,向善的就是善業,有的是不善不惡。
 
惡的造很多,善的,造善業,能夠再來人間受福報,再造福人間。有的人有福,卻是他沒有造什麼惡,但是他也不想要去造善,這種不善不惡,這種人也有。世間很多,他很有福,但是善,他不想做,但是惡業他也不去造,這就是不善不惡,介於中間的人。這就要看他未來,還有什麼樣的因緣果報。不過,再怎麼樣,人生就是離不開,三苦、四苦、八苦,這就是人間。
 
「是苦滅」。
 
是苦滅:
然苦與苦因
均可滅而盡
云何能滅
當斷惑
即斷煩惱使不生業
蓋煩惱之
所由起與所由增
皆不知苦因
生於貪欲
貪欲則執於我
及執有我所依之境
 
這個苦要如何滅?苦與苦的因都能夠滅,不是不能滅,但是要如何將它滅盡呢?那就是要「斷」,斷什麼呢?斷惑。我們常常說要斷,斷除一切無明、惑,惑若斷了,我們的心態若能夠完全清楚,就是「斷煩惱使不生業」。惑斷,煩惱斷,自然我們就不會再產生業。
 
煩惱是在外面造作,惑是在內心深處微分的惑,這一點點的惑,他就會惹了很多的無明煩惱。所以,若能夠斷,自然就不會再生苦因。
 
「煩惱所由起與所由增」。煩惱開始與增長,這個不斷增長苦,那就是因為我們迷茫不知苦因,所以生貪欲。因為我們無知,不知道,所以我們不斷貪;因為貪欲,所以執為「我有」——世間一切都是我要的,都是我所有的。不知人生無常,不知人生業力造作,這都是執,我執,所以於這個境界就有苦了。
 
我們這些若都能夠瞭解,才有辦法斷。所以「是苦滅道」,就是要「證知,和合相續之假相」。
 
是苦滅道:
若證知
此和合相續之假相
我並非真實
則我相滅
我相滅
則我所有相滅
貪欲滅則苦因滅
即集滅故苦滅
欲滅苦
必滅苦因
而後苦滅
故當修
所以能知苦斷集
得證滅之聖道
 
我們要瞭解,世間一切都是和合的假相。誰是我的父親、誰是我的母親、誰是我所愛的,誰是我所怨的,這等等都是這樣的牽連。人我是非,就是這樣和合起來,不斷相續一直下去。其實何必那麼認真,人、事、物相呢?這一切都是假的,如一場戲,這場戲若演完,我就要下臺。所以「則我相滅」。若瞭解了,一鞠躬下舞臺,我是我,你是你,與我就沒有關係了,這是一場戲。
 
所以「我相滅,則我所有(相)滅」。我所有的煩惱、無明、惑,全都滅了,所以,所有的相都滅了。「貪欲滅則苦因滅」,貪欲若滅,苦因就滅了,自然「集」也滅,「苦」也滅,苦、集都滅了。「(欲)滅苦,必滅苦因」,絕對苦因完全都能滅除,「而後苦滅,故當修」。
 
我們要知道,苦就是這樣,要從「集」來的原因瞭解,要瞭解這些原因都透徹了,我們才有辦法滅苦。一切都是假相,來自於假合的形相,所以我們應該要瞭解,就要趕緊修行。所以「能知苦斷集」,才能夠滅,這樣才能到達聖道。
 
很多啊!法這麼多,要說到底,愈聽愈迷茫,所以大家說「霧煞煞」。簡單說一句,那就是,我們的法當然是很多,聽要用心、入心、身體力行,要正觀大乘不思議法。我們要將我們的障礙、我執,執著這個我要、那個我要,這種「執」完全去除等等,我們才有辦法真正輕輕鬆鬆、安安全全在這條修行的道路上。所以我們要時時多用心!


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Explanations by Master Cheng-Yan
Subject: Observing the Great Vehicle to Reveal Wisdom (正觀大乘障轉慧開)
Date: March.10. 2017

“We must properly observe the inconceivable state of the Great Vehicle. When we transform hindrances, wisdom is revealed, and our intelligence is swift and clear. Using unobstructed wisdom of joyful eloquence, we expound the meaning of the Dharma. We do so perfectly and without obstruction, teaching joyfully and with a sense of ease.”

If we take the Dharma to heart, everything we see and hear in our daily living is all within the inconceivable state of the Great Vehicle. As long as we truly take the Dharma to heart, we can experience how everything in the world, every matter and object, is explaining the Dharma to us. Of all people, matters and things, what is there that does not contain and inexhaustible amount of Dharma? We simply need to be mindful.

But so many of us [think], “I already know; it’s enough to just listen to a few sentences. There is no need to listen to so much. I already know it all.” This is how people’s minds are; they only have a partial understanding. We hear one simple phrase and think we understand it all. What does it mean to understand it all? If we say we completely understand, then are all things and matters in the universe universally known to us? Not yet. There are so many countless, incalculable numbers of principles, matters and things. If I teach you one of them, you know it, and you may be able to understand it completely. But there are other teachings as well. You do not know these, so you cannot say, “I already know this thing and that, so I completely understand everything.” So, we “vow to learn infinite Dharma-doors.” Because there is still so much Dharma, we cannot just enter one door and claim that we thoroughly understand all. We ought to understand that there is still so much of the Buddha-Dharma. After we hear one [teaching] and take it to heart, we also need to earnestly contemplate it. We must listen, contemplate and practice. If we do not practice and only listen, [we may feel,] “I understand; from these words, I can expand this [idea] to many others. I can share this with people.” Yes, we may hear and then speak the Dharma, but are we able to transmit the Dharma? What does it mean to be one who transmits the Dharma? This is someone who, after listening, will put it into practice and then speak about it. It is not someone who thinks, “After listening, I know how to teach the Dharma.” We may be able to talk about it, but can we do it? We must practice it, because only through practicing do we attain something. The realizations we attain from truly practicing are that “knowing” we feel deep in our hearts. We cannot simply think about it and say, “I already know this; from what I have heard, there is so much I can say about it.” This would be like putting a handful of pearls on a plate and just turning them whichever way we like. It is not like this; we need to take action ourselves. Then after we act, we can share our realizations. So, we “learn by doing, awaken by learning.” When we truly talk about what we have done and about the Dharma we have realized, that is truly what we have awakened to. After hearing, we contemplate. After contemplating, we uphold it. We must truly get involved to attain understanding. Where does the phenomena of suffering come from? How other people experience suffering is something we cannot understand. We see someone and know, “This person is suffering.” Do we think about helping them? We know “unconditional loving-kindness” and even more so, “universal compassion.” So, when that person is suffering, it is as if we are suffering. We cannot bear for that person to suffer; this is called “universal compassion.” When a person is suffering, we cannot bear it, so we feel we should get close to them, should get involved, should quickly comfort and help this person so they can get back on their feet. When they can stand on their own again and express a smile, we are happy. What are we happy about? We are happy that we attained this teaching and thus realized “unconditional loving-kindness and universal compassion.” When someone is suffering, we can use methods to get close and help them. When we free them from suffering, we can see them smile. They are happy and blessed; when suffering is transformed, blessings arise. Their suffering has already been eliminated, so they are smiling. This is called “unconditional loving-kindness.” We see them smiling, no longer suffering. They have attained joy; this is turning suffering into joy. This is what we truly need to practice and what we must teach and transmit. This is because what we transmit is what we teach, and what we teach is what we practice. This is how we can transmit the teachings.

We often say, only those who hear the Dharma and teach the Dharma can transmit the Dharma. If we just listen and do not practice at all, if we only talk about it, we are still very far away from thoroughly understanding the principles. If we get close to those who are suffering, we naturally understand the origins of suffering, experience the causes of suffering. Because we helped these people, the origin of their suffering, its cause, is there for us to clearly understand. This is like studying this person as a sutra; we can comprehend a lot and then pass it on. The more that we practice, the more we realize. This is the Great Vehicle Dharma.

The Buddha taught us to understand all things in the world. If we understand all things in the world, then we need to put this into action to widely transform sentient beings. To widely transform sentient beings, we need great loving-kindness, great compassion great joy and great equanimity and must go among the people. We can relieve people’s suffering and help them attain peace and happiness. In this process, we need equanimity to be able to let go and with all of our willingness give to help others. In the end, sentient beings and various people, matters and things will not contaminate our minds; this is true equanimity. When we understand loving-kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity, we are willing to give of ourselves, and after giving of ourselves, we have the equanimity to let go of everything. We are not contaminated by any [desire] for fame or benefit. This is loving-kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity.

Of course, in the beginning we must make vows, the Four Great Vows. Because there are countless sentient beings, we must understand boundless suffering. There are countless sentient beings and boundless suffering. We understand this, so we must mindfully make this vow. Great love is even more boundless. With great love, we are willing to give. But we need methods to help others. We understand the suffering of the world, so we want to learn the Dharma to eliminate sentient begins’ suffering. We must attain this ability from the Dharma; only then are we able to help sentient begins depart from suffering. As we learn the Dharma, we also must practice ourselves. If we are not engaging in spiritual practice and are only learning and listening without putting the Dharma into practice, we will face many obstacles. We often talk about the hindrance of knowledge. This is when we only know and do not practice. We know so much, but it hinders our spiritual aspirations. We may listen, but do not take it to heart. If we do not take the teachings to heart, we will not be able to put them into practice. We only know about them. We know these names and appearances. we can talk about so much; it is in our memory, but it is only in our memory and not in our hearts. So, it becomes something called the hindrance of knowledge. We know so much, but also have many obstacles. With arrogance and pride, we will have so many discriminatory judgments. This kind of hindrance, this discrimination, is ignorance added to ignorance, with the hindrance of knowledge on top. When we do not know, [we must admit,]. “I do not know anything; I need to understand.” But if we only know and only reach that first layer of knowledge, we [only] keep it in our memory. It is just in our memory but not in our heart; then, it hinders our spiritual aspirations. We may think, “I know everything. Why do I need to cultivate these practices?” This is called the hindrance of knowledge.

I have mentioned how, in the past, some people talked about drinking. I always teach people to not consume alcohol. It is bad for people’s health and can lead to big mistakes. Those who know a bit of the Buddha-Dharma would say, “Ah, don’t be so attached to the precepts. Drinking alcohol is like drinking the soup of wisdom.” We also teach people to not smoke, as smoking is bad for people’s health. They would say, “Well, this smoke is like the incense cloud canopy.” Think about it; these kinds of justifications are shallow, skin-deep knowledge. Though the Buddha-Dharma teaches us to not be attached to anything, they use this as an excise to violate the teachings and further violate the precepts. They still go against the teachings. This is the hindrance of knowledge. We may know a lot of terminology, but our knowledge hinders our practice. This is what we ourselves need to be vigilant of.

So, right now we must properly observe the inconceivable state of the Great Vehicle. There are many teachings in the world, and this Dharma is not far from us. The teachings are by our side, in front of our eyes, behind our backs and to our left and right. The teachings are everywhere, and the Dharma is really inconceivable. If we apply the Dharma in our daily living, in our spiritual practice and as we deal with people, matters and things, then, truly we have achieved great loving-kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity. If we can do this, we have attained the true Grit Vehicle Dharma.

Theses Brahma king came from 500 trillion lands to ask the Buddha to turn the Dharma-wheel. This was all for the inconceivable Great Vehicle Dharma. If we can do this, then “We transform hindrances, wisdom is revealed and our intelligence is swift and clear.” If we can do this, then we will often be very happy and not be bound by our afflictions. In everything that we do, we will be very clear. Whether other people do right or wrong, we will also be very clear. So, we will not be obstructed by external states. Because our hindrances have been turned away, we no longer have obstructions, nor the hindrance of knowledge, the view of self and others, etc.. We can understand all kinds of things. Everyone has enlightened Buddha-nature, and everyone is equal; it just that people have moments of ignorance. With this ignorance, we must find ways to use methods to brush it off, so people can understand and experience it like us. As hindrances are transformed, our wisdom opens, and our intelligence becomes swift and clear. Our minds will be free of afflictions and hindrances. From the Buddha-Dharma, with what we know, what we realize, what we practice and so on, we naturally have unobstructed joyful eloquence. We will be able to attain unobstructed rhetoric. We have unobstructed meaning, rhetoric and joyful eloquence, all kinds of unobstructed wisdom. This means we understand this Dharma completely. Thus we are not obstructed.

Before we say that others have many afflictions, we should first eliminate our own afflictions. Before we talk about others’ greed, anger and ignorance, we should first eliminate our own greed, anger and ignorance. This way, everything we talk about, everything in the Buddhis sutras, will be things that we have accomplished. Naturally, our intelligence is swift and clear. We will not speak of things that we have not accomplished yet. Instead, it is the things we have done that we will teach. Then we will be at ease, and our intelligence will be swift and clear. From what we understand, we can speak with unobstructed joyful eloquence. No matter how we want to speak of the world’s matters, things, principles, people and so on, naturally we can do it without obstruction. “Using unobstructed wisdom of joyful eloquence, we expound the meaning of the Dharma. We do so perfectly and without obstruction, teaching joyfully and with a sense of ease.” We will be at ease with what we teach; our intelligence will be swift and clear, and we will be joyful. Because our hindrance of knowledge that obstruction, has been turned away, we can use world-transcending wisdom to explain teachings for the world. Our hindrances are transformed and wisdom opened, thus we completely eliminate all obstructions. Naturally, our mind becomes clear, and we can teach others without obstructions.

Of course, we must first understand the way to properly observe the principles of the Great Vehicle. We must understand the principles of the Great Vehicle and not be misled by [people who say]. “Oh, don’t be attached to everything. I know a little bit, but I can say a lot.” These kinds of clever phrases and justifications are not true teachings. I hope that when we engage in spiritual practice. Then we are able to speak the True Dharma. Only with the True Dharma can we use unobstructed joyful eloquence to “expound the meaning of the Dharma. We do so perfectly and without obstruction,” thus we can “teach joyfully and be at ease.” If what we say can be applied by others, used and practiced by them, then we are truly transmitting the Dharma to transform people. This is very important.

Next, let us quickly look at the previous passage, “At that time, Great Unhindered Wisdom Superior Tathagata accepted the request of the Brahma kings and the 16 princes. Thus He immediately began the Three Turnings and Twelve Applications of the Dharma-wheel.”

Starting at this time, Great Unhindered Wisdom Superior Tathagata saw that the causes and conditions were complete. He immediately began turning the Four Noble Truths and Twelve Applications of the Dharma-wheel. We all face the suffering of the world. The Buddha came to this world of suffering to teach the truth of suffering and to help us understand the causation of suffering, which is the accumulation of many subtle afflictions. As we have accumulated afflictions of dust-like ignorance, the amount of karma we have created, big and small, is as numerous as dust particles. These dust-like delusions of ignorance, also known as dust-like ignorance, create countless afflictions. So, we accumulate many [causes of suffering]. The Buddha explained them to us one by one with the truths of suffering and causation. Since we understand suffering and causation, we know we have accumulated so many afflictions which have caused us to suffer. So, we should all quickly awaken. Since we know these principles, we must earnestly engage in spiritual practice and walk this great, direct Bodhi-path. We should walk the right path and do the right things. Doing the right things and walking the right path is called wisdom. This is the way we eliminate afflictions and practice virtuous Dharma.

So, we must continuously eliminate afflictions and increase our practice of virtuous Dharma. This is practicing on the Path. To cease afflictions, we need to practice on the Path. This is the teaching of the Four Noble Truths. Every teaching must be repeated over and over and taught constantly for sentient beings to be able to understand. This is why there are the Three Turnings. “You must know and you must practice so you can realize.” Thus, there were the Three Turnings.

The next passage states, “Sramanas, Brahmins, heavenly beings, maras, Brahma kings and all others in the world are unable to turn it.”

These many sramanas, Brahmins, heavenly beings, maras, Brahma kings, all the beings in this world, are unable turn it. This is talking about sramanas and Brahmins; both spiritual practitioners. Sramanas took refuge in the Buddha and became monastics. The monks and nuns that upheld the Buddha-Dharma were all called sramanas. They were spiritual practitioners. Brahmins were also spiritual practitioners. Monastics and lay disciples of purifying practices were called sramanas and Brahmins. Monastics of the Sangh and lay practitioners of purifying practices were called sramanas and Brahmins.

“Heavenly beings, maras, Brahma kings” means all heavenly beings or even King Mara, or King Brahma. They have great force and power, but even they and “all others in the world are unable to turn it.” Not only heavenly beings, sramanas and Brahmins, but all others in the world are unable turn it. This is to say, the world-transcending Dharma can only be turned by the Buddha. No matter who, in the heavens or in the world, all were unable to turn it.

All others in the world are unable to turn it: Only the Buddha can turn the world-transcending Dharma; no worldly beings can do so. None of those in the assembly could turn this Dharma-wheel. This indicates that only that Buddha could attain perfect realization and teach universally.

So, we need to listen to the Buddha-Dharma. The Buddha is world-transcending; He had already transcended the Three Realms. The Three Realms are the desire, form and formless realms. He had already transcended them. As for the Ten Realms, everyone needs to remember there are the Six Unenlightened Realms and Four Noble Realms; He had transcended them all. The Buddha had transcended the Ten Realms, thus He was able to expound the Dharma for the Six Unenlightened and Four Noble Realms. Heavenly beings and maras are still included in the Six Unenlightened Realms, so they were unable to turn it. Only those who have transcended can turn it. Thus it says, “Only the Buddha can turn it, because the Buddha is beyond the Three Realms, meaning in the universe, in this space, He was in the highest position. He transcended this space, thus, He saw the principles completely clearly and was able to analyze them for us, “with the great, subtle and wondrous tone.” Both great and small phenomena were completely understood by the Buddha. Throughout all Dharma-realms there was nothing He could not understand. This is the meaning of world-transcending. Throughout the entire universe, only the Buddha was able to understand. People of the world could not turn it. Only the world-transcending Great Enlightened One, the Buddha, was able to teach this subtle Dharma. “None of those in the assembly could turn this Dharma-wheel.” This Dharma-wheel can only be turned by the Buddha.

“This indicates that only the Buddha could attain perfect realization and teach universally.” At this great Dharma-assembly, only the Buddha was able [to reach the Dharma] that pervades the universe and all Dharma-realms; only He knew it all and was able to expound it. This was because the Buddha had already transcended the Three Realms and even completely transcended the Ten Realms, so He was able to encompass all Dharma as He explained it to the people of the world. Everything He taught, from the first turning of the Dharma-wheel, was inseparable from teachings for the world. This worldly Dharma is suffering, causation, cessation and the Path.

He spoke of suffering, the causation of suffering, the cessation of suffering and the path to cessation of suffering.

Right now, this passage is entirely about [presenting] this state again in great detail, the state of the truth of suffering, as well as the Four Noble Truths. Amidst suffering, we have already understood how we are affected by our environments. The suffering He spoke of “refers to the direct and circumstantial retributions throughout the Three Realms.” It is all included in the Three Realms, in the direct and circumstantial retributions of the Three Realms.

We often speak about the Three Realms. The Three Realms are the desire, form and formless realms. But how would the formless realm have suffering? Where is the formless realms? In our minds. We cannot see our mind, but in our minds, when we have subtle delusion, then we still have these subtle amounts of greed and ignorance. It is subtle, just a little bit, not very much. But even with these small amount, there will be obstructions. If the causes and conditions happen to arise, if the causes and conditions happen to converge, then these small amounts of ignorance and delusions will be stirred up and start dragging us along again. Some say, “A single spark can start a huge blaze.” We can see this when a great patch of forest is continuously engulfed by fire, burning up an entire mountain. So, these subtle amounts of afflictions must be completely eliminated.

Thus, we keep on talking about the Brahma kings. [They] cultivated supreme good deeds and upheld pure precept. Since they were born in the Brahma heavens, why did they still need to travel from afar to the Saha World to ask the Buddha to turn the Dharma-wheel? This is because they had not yet put an end to cyclic existence. They still had a small amount of dust-like delusions that they had not yet eliminated. So, this is also the state of our minds. If our minds have not attained through comprehension, there will still be small amounts of afflictions. If the causes and conditions come together, something very small can provoke something large. Thus, these intangible afflictions still exist, so they still face retributions in the Three Realms. These retributions are all suffering. If we have not completely escaped, then even the thoughts of our minds still have a little bit not yet fully transcended. This is also suffering. So, this is “the causation of suffering.”

The causation of suffering: Why does the suffering from direct and circumstantial retributions exist? This is because of causation, which is speaking of accumulation. When deluded causes meet karmic conditions, they give rise to and lead to the existence if this effect.

Suffering is found in our direct and circumstantial retributions. There was a period of time that I kept explaining direct and circumstantial retributions. How did we come to this world? Why are there these environments in this world? Why were we born in this country or born in that country? Some people’s circumstantial retributions bring them to be born in a country where from birth they face unbearable suffering.

When we see the conditions in Zimbabwe, and think of Ethiopia in the past, we wonder how there can be so much suffering. Just to drink a sip of water is so difficult. The water that they drink is turbid. The cows and sheep drink at the same place and also defecate there. Such a dirty environment is where they have to go get water. At that place, they scoop up the water and drink it on the spot, because to get the water, they have to walk more than 90 minutes. This is in Zimbabwe. For only adults to retrieve water is not enough. The mother’s son, nine years old, also must go with her to collect water. The water weighs five to six kilograms, and she puts it on her son’s head. With the water on her son’s head, some may splash out. She fills the water to the brim, so the water will also overflow. This is not good, so she takes it off her son, but is reluctant to pour out too much water. She puts it back onto his head. Once he moves, the water overflows again. The son quickly takes the water off his head and puts it on the ground. The bucket is wet, so the sand sticks to the bottom of the bucket. He picks it up again and brushes away the sand, then puts it back on his head. Now wet and with sand stuck on it, the bucket full of water on his head is heavier than five kilograms. At six years old, this child started doing this, up until now when he is ten years old. Every day early in the morning, before dawn, he goes with his mother and collects water in this way. It takes over 90 minutes for them to walk home. Afterwards, they soak some corn grains, then with his hands, he kneads it, puts it into his mouth and runs off. Where does he go? To school. He is doing well in school, except his mathematics needs work. After school, he runs back. In the afternoon, they collect water again. Each time they go out, it takes 90 minutes. It is very hot, so he pants. We can see this; this child has been suffering from birth. From five or six, he already had to join in the daily life of an adult and suffer in this way, even up to today. This child, Raymond, as we can see, is so good at school. In his class, more than 70 percent of the kids are also like Raymond; they help their mothers early in the morning. Their circumstantial retribution brought them to be born in that place. Children with blessings, from when they are born until 8 or 9, will be carried by their fathers. When they enter middle school, their fathers still drive them to school. When we think about it, how can circumstantial retributions vary so much? Do these children have a choice? If they could choose, they would not choose to go to Zimbabwe or a place with suffering. With these children’s circumstantial retributions and their own direct retributions, they were so fortunate growing up. Once they grow up, can they still be fed with a silver spoon their whole life? Can they grow up smoothly and stay pure? In this kind of normal life, can they know their blessings, cherish them and learn principles of the world to become pillars of society? Are they content with their lot? We do not know. If they do not have these good conditions, with their direct retributions, though blessed, without cultivation, they will be in the asura realm. This is suffering too. When our minds give rise to afflictions and our actions are not upright, we cause our family to suffer from afflictions, cause unrest in society and so on. This is our own direct retribution.

So, these direct and circumstantial retributions are truly unbearable suffering. Why is it like this? It is because of causation; with causation, we have accumulated many things from past lives. So what is it that is accumulated? It is delusion. Even if it is a subtle or a small amount of delusion, when the causes and conditions come, this delusion will endlessly create afflictions and reproduce ignorance. Thus we will create karma. Our karmic conditions, negative causes and conditions, lead us to come to this place with these circumstantial and direct retributions. This is how, in our confusion, we create negative karma and causes and thus face these retributions of suffering. It is because of delusion.

This “delusion” drives from greed, anger and ignorance; the afflictions of the Three Poisons lead us to create all this karma. With negative karma, we face suffering. There is positive and negative karma; the karma we create can be positive or negative or “indeterminate karma.” There are these three types of karma. Negative actions will create negative karma. Positive actions will create positive karma. Some actions are indeterminate. We create much negative karma. If we create positive karma, we can be born in this world and enjoy blessed retributions. Then we can benefit the world. Some people have blessings and do not create much evil karma, but they also do not want to create good karma. This kind of indeterminate [life], this kind of person, is also common in the world. They have blessings, but they do not want to do good deeds. But they do not create negative karma either. This is indeterminate [karma]. For these people in the middle, their future will depend on the karmic causes and effects they still have. But, whatever happens, our lives cannot be separated from the Three Sufferings, the Four Sufferings, and the Eight Sufferings. This is the human realm.

Next is “the cessation of suffering.” The cessation of suffering: Still, suffering and the causation of suffering can both be brought to cessation and ended. How can they be eliminated? We must eliminate delusions. By eradicating afflictions, we will not give rise to karma. As for afflictions, what causes them to arise and to increase is not recognizing the causation of suffering and thus giving rise to greed and desire. With greed and desire, one is attached to self as well as the state that the self depends on.

How do we reach the cessation of suffering? Both suffering and the causation of suffering can be eliminated. It is possible to eliminate them. How do we completely eliminate them? This requires “elimination.” Elimination of what? Elimination of delusions. We often say that we must eliminate all of our ignorance and delusion. When our delusions are eliminated, our mind can be completely clear. “By eradicating afflictions, we will not give rise to karma.” By eliminating our delusions and afflictions, naturally we will not give rise to karma. Afflictions are created in our actions; Delusions are subtle and deep in our minds.
This small amount of delusion can stir up a lot of ignorance and afflictions. So, if we can eliminate this, the causes of suffering will not be created. “As for afflictions, what causes them to arise and to increase?” When afflictions begin to increase, this endlessly increases suffering. It is because we are confused and do not know the causation of suffering that we give rise to greed and desire. Because we do not know, we are constantly greedy. Because of greed, we cling to a sense of “self.” “I want everything in the world. It all belongs to me.” We do not recognize the impermanence of life or how we create karma in our lives. We are attached to our sense of self, and in this state, we suffer. If we can understand this, then we are able to eliminate [suffering]. So, this is “the path to cessation of suffering.”
This requires “recognizing this false appearance that comes from continuous convergence.”

The path to cessation of suffering: If we recognize this false appearance that comes from continuous convergence and know the self is not real, then the appearance of self will cease. When the appearance of self ceases, all appearance belonging to the self will cease. When greed and desire cease, the causes of suffering will cease. This means when the causation ceases, the suffering thus ceases. If we want to eliminate suffering, we must eliminate the causes of suffering. Then suffering will cease. Therefore, we must cultivate this noble path that enables us to recognize suffering, eliminate causation and realize cessation.

We need to understand that everything in the world is a false appearance that arise from convergence. Who is my father? Who is my mother? Who are the ones I love? Who are the ones I hate? All these are linked together in this way. Personal conflicts also form through convergence. And endlessly continue in this way. Actually, why should we be so earnest when it comes to appearances of people, matters, things? Everything is false, just like a play. When the play is over, we must leave the stage. So, “Then the appearance of self will cease.” If we understand, after we bow and leave the stage, “I am who I am and you are who you are, and you don’t have anything to do with me.” This is just a play. So, “When the appearance of self ceases, all appearances belonging to the self will cease.” All of our afflictions, ignorance and delusions have all been eliminated. So, all appearances have been eliminated. “When greed and desire cease, the causes of suffering will cease.” If we eliminate greed and desire, we will eliminate the causes of suffering. Naturally, “causation” will cease, and “suffering” will also cease. Causation and suffering are both eliminated. “If we want to eliminate suffering, we must eliminate the causes of suffering.” When the causes of suffering are completely eliminated. “Then suffering will cease. Therefore we must cultivate this.”

We need to know that this is what suffering is We must begin from the causation of suffering to understand its origins very thoroughly. Then, we are able to reach cessation of suffering. Everything is a false appearance and an illusory appearance coming from convergence. So, we ought to understand that we must quickly engage in spiritual practice. Thus, we “can recognize suffering” in order to eliminate it. Only then can we reach the noble path. There are many teachings. If one speaks of them all, we will listen and become even more confused. So, people say, “I don’t get it.” To put it simply, of course there are many teachings, so we should listen mindfully, take them to heart and put the teachings into practice. We must properly observe the inconceivable state of the Great Vehicle Dharma. Our obstacles and attachment to self, attachment to wanting this or wanting that, must be completely eradicated. Then we are able to truly, with ease, walk safely on this path of spiritual cultivation. So, we must always be mindful.

(Source: Da Ai TV – Wisdom at Dawn program – Explanation by Master Chen-Yen)
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